Evolution of human
Evolution is the change in the same species or group of species which share same location and habitat. It results in changes that pass on to generations to generations. Evolution of humans is classified into ancient, medieval and modern age.
The evolution of human began in Africa million years ago, the process of evolution is under covered by studying fossils of different period. The process of sharing the habits to the new generation helps us to evolve. The body structure keep on changing to adapt the surroundings and help us to survive.
As per the accepted theory of Charles darvin, the ancient humans are developed by the species of the apes. The Darwin’s theory of evolution describe the similarities between humans and apes and how they evolve. The theory is accepted by the world, as 93% of behavior and the body language of the gorillas and humans is nearly same. But the theory is yet to be proven. It’s still unclear which species of ape evolve into humans.
In the early ages of humans, they used to walk on four leg but as the decades passed, behavior, communication and the way to understand living developed with different ideas and thinking about the necessity. They began with stones and sharpen the edges which could be used to cut woods, meat, fire and for defense against animals. They kept on making better weapons, and improve their skill on them. The wheels were made to carry food. The material change by stone to metal. The new inventions were made every time to simplify the work and manpower, which become as a daily routine
Most scientist believe our common ancestor existed 5 to 8 million years ago. Then the species separated, one evolving into gorillas and chimps, the other evolve into species called hominids which are early humans. Some scientist do believe that the humans are evolved from the largest ape Gigantopithhecus ever lived on this planet which was nearly twice the size of normal person and the size goes on decreased by time. The skeleton of Gigantopithhecus is still to be discover, only 3 jaws and 1100 teeth are ever found of this ape. While few says the gibbon are the ancestor of humans. Some researchers also claims that evolution did not happen gradually and if believe in theory of evolution then humans should have been more develop. The ancient archaeologist also believes the evolution of humans are connected to the extraterrestrial species based on the ancient monuments, cities, the cave drawings, etc. And are even mentioned in the mythological stories.
The Priest King
Mohenjo-Daro was one of the largest city of the Indus valley civilization situated along the Indus river of south Asia. It is in Sindh, Pakistan. The city was built around 2600bc. It was one of the urban settlements in the world.
The priest king is a male sculpture found at same time during excavation of city in 1926 by marshall. the sculpture is 6.9in tall and depicts a beard man. It has a band on head with circular ornament on the middle of forehead and similar but smaller ornament on the right upper arm. The hair of the sculpture is combed towards back of the head properly and the ends of fillet fall along the back. It is believed that two hole below ears had a necklace or other head ornament which was attached to the sculpture. Eyes and the beard is engraved over face. The left shoulder is covered with a cloth which is decorated, the double and the single circle designs on the cloak were filled with red pigment. The holes in centre of each circle indicates that they were made with a drill All the artefacts and sculptures found in this city are handmade.
During the excavation of Indus valley civilization, the archaeologist also found number of seals and artefacts. They also found two copper axes with inscription on it. Inscription on both the axes gave the name priest. Even many of the other objects had the same name engraved on them. Based on the importance of priest in the civilization the sculpture was later known as priest king. priest king is now in the national museum, karachi, pakistan.
Dancing girl is a bronze statue found city of Indus valley civilization, Mohenjo-Daro by john Marshall. It is 10.5cm in height and around 4,500 years old. It was found in 1926 during excavation of city. The name was given with a assumption as dancing girl by archaeologist Gregory. It is a statue of fifteen year girl maybe, in standing position wearing number of bangles and necklace, giving a natural posture with one hand on hip. Both the arms are too long.
The right hand of girl is completely filled with wearing more than 20 bangles, whereas wearing only 4 bangles on the left arm. The girl seems to be confident about herself. The statue is displayed at national museum, new Delhi.
Invention Of Script
The development of language traces the history of writing. Writing numbers began before than writing letters. The true writing of language was invented completely independently in maybe Mesopotamia in 3200 BC. The writing appeared in process of cultural diffusion. It was invented to representing language using writing.
Some of the first writing was developed in china around 1200 BC. The Chinese characters are an independent invention as there was no evidence of relation between china and civilizations near East. Egyptian script are very different from Mesopotamian. There are similarities in concept of all of them and the idea of writing may have come to Egypt from Mesopotamia. One of the archaeology magazine report in 1999 say that earliest Egyptian stone are from 3400 BC, this was a challenge to commonly held belief that early symbols representing specific place, object, evolved into more complex symbol in Mesopotamia.
The Indus valley script of Indus valley civilization In India in 2600 BC are in similar debate. The oldest writing example is from 1851, 139 years after the civilization’s first contact with Europeans.
Various such other cases are known for the first to invent writing, where the concept of writing was forwarded, from one civilization to another but its system was independently developed.
Object as history
Ponte Vecchio is also known as the old bridge, the bridge is over river Arno in Florence, Italy and believed to be built during roman period in 16th century. It’s a very famous landmark and joins the center of the city with Oltrarno. It is built on the narrowest part of the river. It’s a tourist attraction now but initially was built and designed as a defensive structure. There are series of bridges of which this bridge is number five. The bridge was collapsed in flood of November 4, 13331, it was the biggest flood the city ever faced, it was rebuilt by 1350. it also recently damaged by flood in 1966. the best known gold and jewelry shops are on the both sides of the bridge, shopkeepers of these shops used to display materials on tables, shops were added in late seventeenth century after the authorization of mayor ( bargello ). Building on both the end side of the bridge are rebuilt after world war ll. This is the only bridge which was not destroyed in Florence by Germans during world war ll due to direct order of Adolf Hitler. Nowadays a tradition was introduced by the lock shop owner at the end of the bridge- locking lock on the railing and throwing its key in river, the lovers become eternally bonded. However to decrease the damage to centuries old structure, administration put a sign on bridge ie. 160 euro fine 2for those who caught locking anything to railing, which in turn decrease tourist attraction.
Ponte vecchio | “A View On Cities,” http://www.aviewoncities.com/florence/pontevecchio.htm
Ponte vecchio | “Art Trav,” http://www.arttrav.com/florence/ponte-vecchio-facts/
2 Ponte vecchio | “A View On Cities,”
OBJECTS AS HISTORY
If it hadn’t been a storm 2000 years ago, one of the most complex mechanism in the world wouldn’t have been found, later then divers spend a year on that site. Discovered by a team of Greek sponge diver was a cargo shipwreck at the coast of Antikythera island which is on the north – west of Greek mainland in October 1900. Dimitrios Kondos, was the captain of the team. Dimitrios Kondos and his crew bring up one of the archaeology’s great finds, that changed and challenged the ancient history of technology. They discovered a heap of different marble and bronze sculptures instead. No one believed that the greatest Greek treasure ever, was discovered by an accident. It came from roman ship that sank 2000 years ago. It was stormy night and the ship crashed into the cliffs. The ship broke apart, and its remains found 160 feet below the surface of sea. It was a Greek treasure, as roman took over Greece colonies, they were probably transporting treasure. The ship was on its way to home form Africa.
Divers discovered hundreds of bronze and marble sculptures, pottery, jeweller, coins, they also discovered the most important object of all, which they couldn’t explain. A clock type piece of fragile chunks of green corroded bronze, unlike the any object ever known from ancient world, separated in three main fragments which are divided into 82 separate fragments, which revealed unexpected mechanical components, mainly gears. Only four of all this fragments contains gears. The largest gear in fragments is 140 millimetre (5.5 inch) in size and had 223 teeth. It was found housed in a 340 millimetre (13 inch) by 180 millimetre (7.1 inch) by 90 millimetre (3.5 inch) wooden box. The box was discovered in 45 metres (148 ft) below the surface off point Glyphadia on the Greek island of Antikythera.
The device is about the size of a shoebox with wooden sides and bronze faces. On the front face there are two large and three small dials whereas on the back it has three dials. To operate the device you have to turn the crank on side of device which will rotate atleast 30 gers inside machine. You have to turn the side crank to adjust the date. whether you want to see a Olympic year or next solar and lunar eclipse ( by date and hour ) or the twelve constellations or the phase of the moon or the positions of the five planets you can easily get the perfect timing by just adjusting the cranks.
This artefact was recovered after one year in 1901. Today, Item 15087 placed in Athens museum is one of the most complex mechanism in the world. It is dated around 205 BC.
The mechanism went unnoticed for two and half years as the museum staff was busy working on piecing together the other bronze and marble statues. On may 17, 1902, archaeologist Valerio stais was examine the artefacts and suddenly noticed that one piece of the rocks had gears embedded on it. Researchers quickly noticed tiny wheels on device, and found it’s not like other treasures found in shipwreck but a detail work and made with precision, not a normal object but a fine piece of technology. There is no information of developing of mechanical gears during that period. The gears are used in astronomical clocks in Europe in fourteenth century. The mechanism soon came to known as Antikythera Mechanism as it is found off the Greek island. Antikythera, and is known to be one of the most intriguing objects in the history of technology. Few of the first researchers who research on the Antikythera Mechanism suspected that it is a mechanism to predict positions of celestial bodies, positions of moons, time of eclipses, etc. Since the mechanism dated around 200 B.C.. nobody on the earth had either the astronomical knowledge nor mechanical, to construct such a device. Nothing like the Antikythera Mechanism would have reappeared in history until the mechanical astronomical clocks, built 1500 years later in Europe. Scientist have been researching on what they have. From the past years, 3D scanning technology has reveal the inner working of the device, which include a set of interlocking gears and an intricate set of mechanism having inscription on it. For the first time since the Antikythera Mechanism has pulled out from the bottom of the sea, a team of international researchers has translated text inscribed on it. The mechanism has 30 bronze gears having thousands of interlocking tiny teeth. One of the researchers Alexander Jones, professor of ancient science history museum at New York said “It’s a lot of detailed work for them, because it came from a period about which we know nothing about the technology, except what we have from shipwreck “. The museum told, “they are very small texts but they are very valuable for us. Text on mechanism are our only guide to understand the mechanism”. The researchers believed that the Antikythera Mechanism was once placed in a vertical rectangular case having cylindrical dials and the inscription on both the front and back side of case. A hand crank on the one side of machine would have turned gears that must have moved the dials, the dials on back of case would have reflected these cycles with greater precision so that anyone using the device could know the precise position of sun and moon on any day. The mechanism can tell when lunar and solar eclipse will occur, it also would tell the timings of Olympic games. Mainly every important cultural event was kept on eclipse as it was believed to have an ominous implication.
An extreme surprising level of complexity must have been required to represent the astronomical data in this way. Yet the researchers say that the mechanism is more like a text book used for teaching than a computer used for calculating. There is always new information about the mechanism every time, the new translated inscription give researchers idea of tiny sphere which must have represent movement of sun, several planets and the stars on the front of mechanism. The best passages include description of lost part of this mechanism. On the small sphere of sun and planets a displayed of pointers must have been attached. Due to the latest technology, many related pieces of the Antikythera Mechanism are made to study about how this mechanism may have worked. Many researchers have dreamed of finding missing pieces from the device. Or perhaps trying to figure out pieces from the only one exact replica of the Antikythera Mechanism. A famous French diver Jacques Cousteau took his team of divers to the site of the wreckage in 1953 for trying to search for the remaining pieces of Antikythera Mechanism. They looked for artefacts from the portion of wreckage where they found Antikythera Mechanism. They picked more than 300 artefacts but no one can tell what may have destroyed in all these years. Marine archaeologist says that if any of the pieces of the mechanism went through that time, it would have disintegrated.
The diver who has dived at the wreck for several years, says he has seen history turning into dust in all these years. When a diver dived to searched artefacts, he turned up a bronze artefact to conservators. Just to have the object crumble entirely, they had to gingerly remove a thin layer of corrosion from over the object. The mechanism which represents of more than 40 percent of the machines that once existed, are now just a remnant of sorts. There is almost no melted left at the bottom of the sea, anywhere near that island. Everything that is remaining is mostly just corroded products or the dried-out husk of the things. The inscription on the case helped researchers a lot so that they can say with great authority about how the thing was used. The mechanism is made of small platting of bronze plates, which are 2 millimetres thick. They are not aluminium foil, but they are not much thicker. It’s now nearly impossible to find the rest of it from the bottom of the sea. It might have been corroded. Scientific investigation failed to know more on imagination than the fact. Researchers from the last half century have tried to revel its secret. Since they have used the latest technology available, such 3D, scanning and x-ray analysis, many unrevealed secret of mechanism have come to know us from 2005 a big team of researcher are working of the mechanism, using all the latest technics and technology available today. The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project is an international team of academic researcher, funded by word best high technology company, which aims to the significance of Antikythera Mechanism. The project is under Hellenic ministry and was supported by leverhulme trust, UK. The project has received strong support from the National Archaeological Museum which is in Athens. The Museum staff (elen imagaou, mary zafeiropoulou) so co-ordinated with this project and actively involved with the researched. Many University had research groups in 2005 to research on this mechanism. The people like astronomer Mike Edmunds and filmmakers. Tony Freeth, astronomer John Seiradakis , astronomer Xenomhon Moussas and the physicist Yanis Bitsakis. The result was published in2006. The Antikythera Mechanism research project (AMRP) began important collaboration with ancient world, New York, USA, institute of study.
At the time of first data gather in process in 2005, latest technologies were used to revolved unknown secret of this mechanism. This research was carried by two of the worlds’ high technology companies. HP (Hewlett Packrat), USA and the x-tek system (x-tek), UK. The x-tek’s super three dimensional were used from the leading Germany Company, volume graphics. Technical support was provided to the volume company by university of keele, uk. All the process was filmed by the tony freeth’s film and television production company. The name of the documentation was given as Image First, “the world’s first computer “. In the September 2005, the three specialized scientists from HP (Hewellet Packard) mobile and media system technology laboratory went to Athens with their new digital imaging system to examine the inscriptions and other features engraved on the Antikythera Mechanism. Tom Malzbender, Dan Gelb from HP (Hewellet Packard) team, brought a remarkable piece of specified equipment with them. A machine that takes series of still photos to analyse three dimensional structures. This enables detailed examination of fine details of the Antikythera Mechanism that are engraved with the inscriptions, but hardly see able through normal eyes. During the time of October 2005, another team of special researchers from X-tek company, visited to the Athens museum. The project was led by company’s pioneering proprietor officer, roger Hockley. The team’s aim was to use the latest X-ray technology to look at internal structure of the mechanism with all the gears used inside it. They also brought the prototype of very powerful x-ray machine. The machine weights eight tons and was called as Blade Runner. It was first designed to search for the minute cracks in turbines. The machine gives very detailed three dimensional x-rays, using the x-ray techniques called micro focus, it has opened a lot of windows on the internal detailed inscriptions and at the resolution which is better than a tenth of a millimetre. They also made CT scans, CT and computed tomography – it is a process of creating a three-dimensional image from slices, in this case they used x-ray images instead of three dimensional images. Now the Inscriptions can be read that we didn’t seen from past two thousand years. The machine has helped a lot to build a comprehensive picture of all the functions of Antikythera Mechanism. We know have a detailed map of its internal mechanism.
The mechanism must have been 1000 years out of place, and no human had knowledge to make and use something like this. it is very much complicated than any other mechanical devices known from that time, especially it is the earliest known uses of gears. The greek national museum have examples of use of products during that period, but nothing was as precise as the gears used in this mechanism. No one yet have tried to open the device but the inner side back is covered with the instructions for its use. It includes description of controls, various calendars, and mentioned the celestial bodies that are tracked by the device. The device is probably built in the middle of the 2nd century BCE, during the period of Syracuse or Corinth. The main question here is no one knows who built it and why one had to build such a complex mechanism. Some said that it is proof of time travel, alien visitation. It is assumed that Archimedes, who died few years before this mechanism was build left his research behind, which was continued by his co- workers and they build it upon his inventions. Most researchers believe that is not the first of its kind – its design is quite refined, which definitely need to have as many as 10 prototypes, as no one can make such a refined work with detail precision in first place. The object as expensive and complex would have been made in series in a order to recover the cost of design. The rest of the mechanism must have been melted as they probably be made of bronze as it was very valuable or as bronze is highly recyclable, it would have been lost in the depth of mediterrian sea.
By the information we get so far, we can assume that the Greeks were building far more advanced mechanism computational devices than we used to give them credit for. We knew the ancient people knew knowledge but we didn’t know that they were translating it into bronze so exquisitely.
The Antikythera Mechanism
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The Antikythera Mechanism
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The Antikythera Mechanism
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The Antikythera Mechanism
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The Antikythera Mechanism
“ The Antikythera Mechanism “